first_imgOranza virtual Tour champion Scarlett Johansson, Sterling K. Brown among SAG Awards presenters Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. MOST READ Cabuyao City rising above the ashes through volunteerism Recto seeks to establish Taal rehab body to aid community, eruption victims Maria Perez of F2 over Janine Navarro and Stiix Horton of Cignal. CONTRIBUTED PHOTOThe unbeaten leader drubbed Cocolife, 26-24, 25-18, 21-25, 25-20, to keep its perfect record in the Chooks to Go-Philippine Superliga Grand Prix at Filoil Flying V Centre.It was the seventh straight win in the first round of preliminaries for Petron, which also stopped Cocolife’s four-game winning run.ADVERTISEMENT In Liverpool, Man United sees the pain and path to recovery Nadine Lustre’s phone stolen in Brazil LATEST STORIEScenter_img The Blaze Spikers, though, aren’t assured of anything yet as the second phase of eliminations will have all teams battling each other again.Hurley sat it out due to injury but it didn’t matter for the Blaze Spikers, who encountered a rough patch only late in the third set when they squandered a 17-12 lead to lose the frame.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crownSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkBut they returned even stronger in the fourth with Lindsay Stalzer producing 22 points, including the winning smash from back row.Sara Klisura fired 38 points but could not prevent the Asset Managers from absorbing a third loss in seven matches. Conor McGregor seeks to emerge from controversy in UFC comeback Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew View comments In the first game, defending champion F2 Logistics’ seamless offense proved enough to disrupt Cignal’s connection.The Cargo Movers flustered the HD Spikers throughout the match to score a 25-21, 25-17, 25-14 win. Last season’s MVP Maria Jose Perez of Venezuela led the assault with 16 points as F2 rose to 4-1.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Jiro Manio arrested for stabbing man in Marikina Tim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crown Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player awardlast_img read more

first_imgA Donegal criminal handed a cashier a note telling her she was being robbed as he held up a betting office.Gavin Mitchell stole more than €500 when he jumped the counter of Wizzy Browne’s bookmakers.Letterkenny District Court heard Mitchell became frustrated because he could not understand what his flatmates were saying. The separated father–of-three ran out of his flat and into the nearest building which was Wizzy Brown’s bookmakers.He handed the cashier a note saying “You are being robbed” and then jumped over the counter grabbing €500.Mitchell was later arrested by Gardai and admitted robbing the betting office in February 2009.Solicitor for the accused, Frank Dorrian, said the incident arose when Mitchell’s flatmates began shouting “kulwa” at him which means ‘Bast***’ in Polish.“This was not a planned robbery. There was some sort of tussle because he could not understand what they were saying.“He went charging down the road and went into the first premises he came across,” he said.He added that Mitchell had been in and out of prison since he was 14 years of age and had spent the majority of the last 13 years behind behind bars.It eas also revealed how Mitchell had been addicted to class A drugs including heroin and cocaine but was not trying to beat his habit.Letterkenny District Court heard how Mitchell made a full admission and that the cashier was not seriously injured despite being pushed.Judge Paul Kelly said it was a frightening and terrifying experience for the cashier but fortunately there was no weapon involved.He said he hoped Mitchell was dealing with his drug addiction and sentenced him to ten months in prison for the robbery.EndsDONEGAL CRIMINAL HANDED CASHIER NOTE AS HE ROBBED BOOKIE SHOP was last modified: September 16th, 2011 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Letterkenny CourtWIZZY BROWNElast_img read more

first_imgTreasurer Phil Angelides won a narrow victory in his bid to be the Democratic Party’s candidate for governor in November, but the margin was not nearly so close among Democrats in Whittier. In contrast to Angelides’ 4.5-point victory over state Controller Steve Westly among voters across the state, Angelides won by a 52 percent to 40 percent margin in Whittier. “People in Whittier may be more in tune with party politics,” said John Smith, a state regional director for the Democratic Party. “Angelides had far and away the bulk of the Democratic Party endorsements,” Smith said. “That included both senators, the leader of California congressional delegation and a host of congressional representatives, assembly members and state senators plus the Democratic Party itself.” Whittier Councilman Bob Henderson said he was surprised the library bond issue lost. But he understood why the measure lost among Whittier voters, even though the city stood to receive about $19.3 million from Proposition 81 for a new library. “Whittier is quite fiscally conservative and residents hate to vote for bonds and spending,” he said. Even so, Proposition 81 did better among local voters than those statewide, where the measure by a 53 percent to 47 percent margin. “It was people voting their self-interest,” said Caroline Heldman, an associate professor of political science at Whittier College. “That’s why the gap wasn’t as big as in Whittier.” Other categories in which Whittier voters departed from voters statewide included the race for state attorney general. While former Gov. Jerry Brown won the statewide vote overwhelmingly, his opponent, Los Angeles City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo got more votes in Whittier, with a 51 percent to 49 percent margin in Delgadillo’s favor. In more heavily Latino Pico Rivera, Delgadillo won by a 71 percent to 29 percent margin. In the statewide Democratic primary for the office of state controller, John Chiang, a state Board of Equalization member, defeated state Sen. Joe Dunn, D-Orange County. But Dunn scored more votes among Whittier voters – 59 percent to Chiang’s 49 percent. (562) 698-0955, Ext. 3022160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORE11 theater productions to see in Southern California this week, Dec. 27-Jan. 2The two local Democratic clubs – Mark Twain and Robert F. Kennedy – both backed Angelides. Westly did have some support from local Latino leaders such as state Sen. Martha Escutia, D-Norwalk, and Assembly members Rudy Bermudez, D-Norwalk, and Ron Calderon, D-Montebello. But the low turnout – only 18.6 percent on election day – may have helped Angelides in Whittier, said Louis Reyes, another Democratic Party state regional director. “You figure more of the long-time, white Democratic voters voted, and that would be a reason Angelides did better,” Reyes said. In other local results, neither of the two statewide propositions did well in Whittier. Proposition 82, the preschool initiative, lost by a 66 percent to 34 percent margin locally. Proposition 81, the $600,000 library bond issue, did better, losing only by a 51 percent to 49 percent margin. last_img read more

first_imgThe Shore 2 Summit Multisport Challenge in Inishowen this weekend will undoubtedly be one of the major adventure challenges offered in Ireland in 2013. The route traversing Inishowen from East to West, Redcastle to Buncrana, and is truly challenging with the combination of “on road / off road” changes that take in every foreseeable vantage point along the ways and showcases the amazing scenery and rugged coastline. The 61k Challenging course consisting of:• 13k Run, – A tough 3k start then a mix of tarred / hill road towards Carndonagh.• 15k Cycle, – Reasonably handy cycle, unless the wind gets you, with 4k of rough hill road.• 7K Mountain hike, – Starting with 0.5k of track, 1k bog land then a 2k climb of Sleibh Snacht. • 2k Kayak, – Beautiful Lake, surrounded by hill and your “now relaxing” body.• 23k Cycle – The 6k “off road” being the highlight starting with a tough 2k climb, Its all downhill from there as you wind around windmills, surrounded by stunning coastline.• 2k shore path run to finish. – Take it in your stride, your almost there.The bike recommendation would probably be a road bike with puncture proof tyres, but there are no guarantees so maybe you’d prefer a hybrid or mountain bike to be on the slower but safe side.Sleive Snacht, Inishowens highest mountain, with its amazing views across the peninsula and beyond signifies the halfway stage of the event. The Mountain climb initially is flat, wet and mucky over bog land before climbing the last 2k to the summit where you have the entire Peninsula and further in your sights. After all that climbing, take a moment to take in the spectacular scenery before you commence you decent.The Kayaks are “flat top” twin kayaks, which are ideal for those who don’t know what that means. In other words you don’t need previous kayaking experience, just keep in time with the other partner and you’ll get there. Experienced Kayakers are dotted around the lake to direct and help if required. Relay partners should try to get to Lake and join in with their partner in the Kayak. The final cycle, 23k in total, from mountain) has 1 tough climb on the “off road” section, apart from this the cycle route consists of rolling hills on the first section and after conquering the climb you weave downhill with windmills to left and right, then onto Tarred road and the final 8k is either flat or downhill.Your almost there, just a 2k run, on those rubber legs, along the shore path, past Doherty’s castle to the finish line at the Shore Front where you will receive a well deserved medal and t-shirt. Refreshments will be served up in the marquee afterwards.If this all seems too much for you, then why not enter with friends and complete the challenge as a team and all receive medals and t-shirts upon the completion of your challenge.SHORE 2 SUMMIT CHALLENGE TO TEST THE BRAVE IN INISHOWEN THIS WEEKEND was last modified: March 12th, 2013 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)last_img read more

first_imgGRAPEVINE, Texas (AP) – A family of three Hurricane Katrina evacuees facing eviction were found dead Friday in their Texas apartment in what appears to be a double murder-suicide, authorities said. Police were called by the apartment complex to assist in the eviction and discovered the bodies, said police Sgt. Todd Dearing in Grapevine, near Dallas. Found with gunshot wounds were a 40-year-old man, a 37-year-old woman and a 14-year-old boy, all from Louisiana. Police found a shotgun believed to be the weapon, Dearing said. Police were searching for a 16-year-old daughter they believe was living elsewhere, he said. Names were being withheld until relatives could be notified. A resident told the complex Thursday of hearing what sounded like three gunshots near the victims’ apartment, Dearing said. Police were called but left when no one answered the door. “There was no reason for us to make entry,” Dearing said. “They said it was their usual method of not answering the phones or door because they were being evicted.” The family was supposed to leave the apartment Tuesday, but the complex offered a few extra days. The family was receiving assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Dearing said. He did not know how long the family had not been paying rent. Apartment managers could not be reached for comment Friday. Calls to the complex’s leasing office rang unanswered. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORERose Parade grand marshal Rita Moreno talks New Year’s Day outfit and ‘West Side Story’ remake160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

first_imgRobbins also finished with six blocked shots to tie for the second most in a single game in Drake history.As a team, Drake was 10-for-25 (40 percent) from three-point range and Norton was 3-for-4. Buena Vista was paced by Garrett Sittner’s 12 points as Drake limited the Beavers to just 22.2 percent shooting.Drake travels to Colorado for its next game on Nov 13. Last season, the Buffaloes edged the Bulldogs, 86-81, in the Paradise Jam. The Bulldogs return to the Knapp Center on Nov 17 at 2 p.m. when they face Texas State. Print Friendly Version Live Stats 1350 ESPN PAC-12 Network Listen Live Watch Live Story Links Box Score (PDF) at Colorado 11/13/2018 – 7 p.m. Box Score (HTML) Next Game: Full Schedule Roster Preview The Drake Men’s Basketball team opened the 2018-2019 season with a dominating 98-52 win against Buena Vista Thursday, Nov 8, in the first regular season game at the Knapp Center.In the first game under head coach Darian DeVries, the Bulldogs had a strong first half, jumping out to a 21-4 lead en route to a 49-27 halftime advantage. “Our guys came out and were really sharp early,” DeVries said. “We got the lead extended right from the jump and that was one of the things we wanted to do. We had a lull in the middle of the half but had a lot of guys contribute.”Freshman Liam Robbins (Davenport, Iowa) and sophomore Noah Thomas (Sydney, Australia) each broke double digit points in the first half, with 12 and 10 respectively.The Bulldogs were led by senior Nick Norton (Bloomington, Ill.) with 17 total points. Norton also had a game-high five assists. Robbins, Thomas, and juniors, Tremell Murphy (Griffith, Ind.) and Anthony Murphy (Griffith, Ind.) weren’t far behind with 16, 15, 14, and 12 total points, respectively.”I thought we shared the ball well, got out and ran and did the things we take a lot of pride in well,” DeVries added.last_img read more

first_imgRed Bluff >> The Red Bluff Bull & Gelding Sale gelding trials were held Thursday in the Pauline Davis Pavilion at the Tehama District Fairground, where prospective buyers were introduced to nearly 100 horses before the 55th Annual Gelding Sale set for 3:30 p.m. Friday.The trials consist of the horses showing off what they can do in three separate stages, including a dry run where the horse shows off its form, the obstacles stage where it can show its ability to run and jump and how well it …last_img

first_imgWARRIORS UPDATE: The Warriors own the NBA’s worst record and have lost five straight games for the first time in the Steve Kerr era. … Golden State … Scroll down to get insights and news updates from the Warriors’ game Friday night against the Celtics.GAME ESSENTIALS: Warriors (2-10) vs. Celtics (9-1) at Chase Center, Friday at 7:30 p.m. (PT). TV: ESPN, NBCS.ODDS: Celtics -7.5. LAST REGULAR-SEASON MEETING: Celtics beat Warriors 128-95 at Oracle Arena on March 5, 2019.last_img

first_imgPopularized by Aaron Sorkin, the “walk and talk” is a clever way to convey a lot of information in an active transitional scene.Cover image via Shutterstock.This brief introduction to the walk and talk scene will take you inside the method, including when to use it, ways to shoot it, and how to get the most out of it. We’ll cover a couple of key features, and we’ll check out a few famous uses of this dialogue-heavy narrative trick. Reasons to Use a Walk and Talk SceneNow, we’re not just shooting these often complicated-to-choreograph scenes to demonstrate that our characters are sharp enough to walk and chew gum at the same time, are we? There are many reasons to use this clever device. Consider the following: Emphasize a busy environment using key elements like interruptions from minor characters and “relay races,” in which characters essentially tag each other in and out of the scene to deliver information or hand off paperwork, important props, and so forth.Get your characters from point A to point B without simply cutting or fading out and back in.Create an active space for exposition, and add interest to what would otherwise just be a talking heads scene.Highlight the production design and set dressing, especially if your work is a period piece or a “love letter” to a famous or interesting city.Build anticipation among characters before a big event or plot point.Show locations in relation to each other to establish a blueprint for your characters’ environment. This is especially useful if you’re setting up a location that will play throughout an entire project, like an office space or a character’s home.Leap from one storyline to another. This plays especially well in commercials or anthologies, in which unrelated characters exist in the same general space. It’s especially fun to use a walk and talk scene to allow them to bump into one another. Useful LocationsIf you want two or more characters to have a lengthy or explanatory conversation, but you’re afraid you’ll lose your viewers’ attention, these nonspecific filming locations will help you create an active dialogue scene.Multi-level buildings: Stairs are your friend. They create depth and movement, and you can find them in some capacity in most locations.Hallways and elevators: Elevators are full of actionable moments: waiting for the elevator, entering or exiting, pressing the button, asking the elevator operator to visit a certain floor, making eye contact, avoiding eye contact — the list goes on. It’s the perfect place to hold your characters captive for any number of reasons.Buildings with busy lobbies: If you have access to a busy lobby setting (or the means to create one), this is a great place to drop characters where they can have a conversation without being isolated.Busy city streets: There is usually so much action on, say, the streets of New York City, that anything goes. Surprise your characters, make them late, give them a reason to stop.Gardens and other outdoor terrain: A walk through the gardens can be slow and meandering or chaotic and full of interactions.Public transportation: A subway car, a bus, a taxi, or any combination of the like can provide great moments for your characters to “stay busy” while they have a conversation. Public transportation also gives you the opportunity to introduce a new character, a distraction, a diversion, or a spectacle.Bars and night clubs: There’s nothing more exciting than following characters into a party, initially focused on their dialogue, then panning or tilting to reveal the Technicolor world they’ve just entered. Music plays a huge part here, and these scenes can be some of the most fun to shoot. Technical, Narrative, and Performance ConsiderationsSteadicam: These “tracking shots” require detailed choreography and often rely on a Steadicam system to stabilize the shot.Dolly system: Steadicam work requires an experienced operator; therefore, it isn’t usually cheap. If you’re working on a budget, you can opt for a dolly setup instead. Using a dolly also allows you to smoothly transition from a frontal follow to a rear follow by simply letting the characters overtake the camera as they walk.Give them something to do: Just because your characters are moving, you shouldn’t neglect other actions. The most interesting, impressive, and dynamic walk and talk scenes involve the characters with their surroundings in as many ways as narratively sensible. Let them stop briefly and consider something, pick something up, pass something off, and so forth.Rehearse, Rehearse, Rehearse: I cannot overemphasize the importance of blocking and choreographing a walk and talk before the day of the shoot. There are many elements that need to come together. For example, lines of dialogue might need to land on certain beats, or you may need to reset props between takes. Don’t underestimate the intricacy of these scenes, even if they look effortless.center_img Famous UsesThere are a few familiar settings that almost always yield a walk and talk scene. These are great places to base your characters if you’re interested in Sorkin-style dialogue-heavy action.Politicians and White House StaffersWe get it: they’re busy! They’ve got paperwork, they’ve got news to share, they’ve got Secret Service trailing them.Law Enforcement and DetectivesOften, a detective will fill her partner in on the details of an entire case in the time it takes the pair to walk away from the crime scene. This is incredibly useful in shows like Law & Order and CSI. Hospital Employees, Doctors, and NursesWe all love the moment when the doctor steps out of the calm operating room and into the chaos of a busy emergency room hallway. In this particular scene from Grey’s Anatomy, we watch these characters literally run from another character rather than confront them to express discontent.Restaurant Employees, Servers, Cooks, and ManagersWe can move from the kitchen onto the floor, back into the kitchen, then into the back office all in one good walk and talk scene. The following scene from Goodfellas establishes the setting and adds visual interest using varied interactions to establish the character.Entertainers, Band Members, Musicians, and Theater ActorsBirdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance) is one giant walk and talk scene, and, man, is it a feat! Shot in its now-notorious, one-take style, this film features characters weaving through green rooms, dressing rooms, catwalks, and stage wings — moving on and off the stage and out into the world while maintaining conversations that advance the narrative. It’s brilliant, and it likely wouldn’t have been as successful shot any other way.Romances, Meet-Cutes, Breakups, Fights, and Quirky New Relationships Remember, the key to a successful walk and talk is choreography and camera movement. Here’s a bit more advice on the topic.7 DIY Filmmaking Uses of the Versatile Wheelchair DollyBuild Your Own Butt/Pedestal Dolly for under $140DIY Hacks: 10 Cheap Tripod Dolly Options to Try at HomeHow to Create a Dolly Zoom With Just a Prime LensDIY Filmmaking: Build a $60 Dolly for Lightweight Cameraslast_img read more

first_imgThe ingredients that lend a smooth, stable consistency to ice cream, chocolate bars, and other packaged snacks may promote certain chronic inflammatory diseases. That’s the claim of a new study, which finds increases in metabolic disease and intestinal inflammation in mice fed two common emulsifiers used in processed food. The authors are a long way from confirming similar effects in humans, but they suggest that these ingredients cause damage by disrupting the barrier between the immune system and the microbiome—the collection of microbes that inhabit our bodies.The finding, published online today in Nature, is “believable and remarkable,” says Karen Madsen, a microbiologist at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, who wasn’t involved in the study. “It sends a really clear message that changes to our food supply are altering our microbiota and our health.”Gut microbes help us fight off infections and resist allergies, but there’s one thing we don’t want them to do: touch our intestinal lining. “Those trillion bugs have kind of got to be kept away from us,” Madsen says. Normally, a layer of mucus separates intestinal cells from gut bacteria. But if bacteria reach these cells, they can stimulate the immune system and cause inflammation. This out-of-control inflammation of the digestive tract is the hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which causes diarrhea, fatigue, and abdominal pain. Chronic inflammation has also been associated with metabolic syndrome—a cluster of co-occurring conditions, including obesity and high blood pressure, that increase a person’s risk of heart disease and diabetes.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Benoit Chassaing, a microbiologist at Georgia State University in Atlanta, wondered if such a bacterial invasion could explain what he describes as a “perfect correlation” between the increasing use of food additives in industrialized countries and the incidence of IBD. (The disease affects more than a million people in the United States and appears to be on the rise.) Work by other groups led Chassaing and colleagues to focus on emulsifiers—detergentlike compounds that coax into a smooth, creamy mixture ingredients that might otherwise prefer to separate, like the milk fat and water in ice cream. A 2009 study found that feeding the emulsifier carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to genetically engineered mice that were already predisposed to intestinal inflammation led to excess growth of bacteria in their small intestines and increased inflammation.In the new work, the researchers fed two common emulsifiers, CMC and polysorbate 80, to both a genetically susceptible mouse strain and wild-type mice—those without genetic mutations that would put them at increased risk of IBD or metabolic syndrome. Among the susceptible mice, eating or drinking emulsifiers for 12 weeks increased the risk of developing symptoms of colitis—a mouse model of the intestinal inflammation seen in humans with IBD—from 40% to 80%. The wild-type mice didn’t develop colitis, but showed low-grade inflammation in their intestines and several features of metabolic syndrome: slight weight gain, increased body fat and food intake, and higher blood sugar levels, which indicate poor glucose regulation associated with diabetes.How emulsifiers induce these changes is still unclear, but the study offers a few hints. Microscopic imaging of the intestines revealed that the average distance between gut bacteria and the intestinal cells was reduced by more than half; bacteria seemed to be advancing toward the gut lining. And the feces of emulsifier-fed mice showed higher numbers of bacterial species known to digest and penetrate mucus. The feces also seemed to contain a more “pro-inflammatory” microbiome, meaning bacteria more strongly activated receptors that trigger inflammation—though it’s not yet clear which bacteria have this effect. Chassaing’s conclusion: Either the emulsifiers damage the mucus layer directly, leaving it vulnerable to bacteria, or they change the composition of the microbiota, favoring the mucus-penetrating microbes.It’s not at all surprising that these substances have an effect on the gut microbes, says Mia Phillipson, a physiologist at Uppsala University in Sweden who studies intestinal inflammation and bacteria-mucus interactions. Everything from being vegetarian to being born by cesarean section can change the composition of our microbiome in meaningful ways, she notes. But relatively few studies to date have observed the effects of food additives on the microbiome in this level of detail. “I think we’re just on the verge of realizing how important this is,” she says. As for the implications in humans, Phillipson says it’s too early to make broad recommendations, but she suggests that people with IBD or a family history of the disease consider avoiding these ingredients.Chassaing, too, is careful not to cast these emulsifiers as the ultimate villain. “Of course, society changed so drastically during the last century … and so many other factors were used in food that we can’t really know yet which one is playing the most important role.” His group is now preparing a more ambitious study that compares the microbiomes of people who completely avoid emulsifiers for several weeks with those on a standard Western diet.last_img read more